Table 1. Ten largest countries not to win a medal at the 2004 Olympic Games, ranked in descending order according to population size (million)
Congo, Dem. Rep. (56.6) +
Nepal (25.2) +
Iraq (24.2) +
* One of the 20 largest countries in the world by population
+ Country experiencing major internal conflict
A total of 71 countries featured in the Olympics medal table (there are 192 members of the United Nations, although the medal table also featured Taiwan, which is not a member).
Even some of the countries that did win medals don't have a lot be proud of, notably India (population 1068 million), which won one silver medal.
The smallest country in the medal table was probably the Bahamas (population 300,000), which won a gold and a bronze.
What the medal table and Tables 1 and 2 clearly show is that it is the rich countries that win the Olympics medals:
Table 2. G8 countries (with medal placings in brackets)
Great Britain (10)
Medals data from the BBC website.
Population data from 2003 World Population Data Sheet, Population Reference Bureau